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John C. Sanford

As a Cornell University professor, John has been conducting genetic research for over 30 years. This research has resulted in more than 100 scientific publications, and several dozen patents. In addition to producing numerous new crop varieties, John's research resulted in new genetic engineering technologies. A large fraction of the transgenic crops grown in the world today involved use of the biolistic “gene gun” process, of which John was the primary inventor.


John feels his most significant contributions to science have been: 1) the Biolistic Process; 2) the book Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome; 3) Development of Mendel's Accountant (the most advanced and biologically realistic numerical simulation of the mutation/selection process); and the Cornell symposium and subsequently published proceedings entitled Biological Information--New Perspectives. This milestone book is John's most significant contribution to science and is available at A free synopsis/commentary of this publication can be downloaded using the same link. Semi-retired from Cornell, John continues to hold the position of Courtesy Associate Professor.

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